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India, Recovery plan could cost air-quality goals

By Aniruddha Ghosal The Associated Press

NEW DELHI » India is facing two public health emergencies simultaneously: badly polluted air and the pandemic. And Surinder Singh, a bus driver in the capital New Delhi, is trapped between them both.

In previous years, the government encouraged more people to use buses that run on cleaner fuels, like the one he drives, as an emergency air quality measure. But this year there are limits on passengers to maintain social distance. The air stings Singh’s eyes, and he worries about contracting the virus every time a person gets on board.

Still reeling from India’s harsh lockdown that dried up his $9 daily income for two months, the 47-yearold father of two says he has no choice but to work. Masked and armed with a bottle of hand sanitizer, he starts his journey near a private hospital that is overwhelmed by virus patients. He travels through roads packed with traffic to the city’s largest and most frenetic railway station. “I drive the bus in constant fear,” he said.

Millions of others are equally desperate in India’s historic recession. The economy contracted by 23.9% in the April-June quarter — its worst performance in at least 24 years — and by 7.5% in the next quarter. The virus, meanwhile continues to spread, with more than 9.7 million cases, and more than 140,000 deaths. And India’s underfunded hospitals, strained by the virus, also are filling up with patients in respiratory distress from the air pollution.

The pandemic has made emergency measures, such as boosting public transit, harder to implement. And long-term targets, including weaning power plants from dirty fossil fuels, are taking a back seat. India plans to increase coal production to reduce imports, and its recovery plan remains heavily reliant on energy sources that produce carbon emissions.

“This pandemic will define the pathway of how we move in the future (to control air pollution),” said Sunil Dahiya, an analyst at the advocacy group Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air. India’s environment ministry did not respond to requests for comment.

The dual threat is particularly pronounced in the Indian capital, New Delhi, where the annual spike in winter pollution levels has come amid a surge in new COVID-19 cases. The city is among the most polluted in India, where an estimated 1.67 million people die annually from bad air. Dr. Akshay Budhraja, a pulmonologist at a private hospital here, said it was flooded with patients with respiratory distress who thought they had COVID19. “Patients are very, very anxious,” he said.

The Delhi pollution gets worse in the fall and winter when the burning of crop debris in neighboring states coincides with cooler temperatures that trap smoke close to the city. More than 76,000 farm fires were spotted by satellites in Punjab state — the most since 2016 — and Delhi’s air quality levels in October were worse than previous years, government data shows.

Although the city of 29 million people and 10 million cars is enveloped in smog, authorities have fewer options than before the pandemic. Last year, authorities had restricted some of the capital’s private vehicles and increased public transportation. But this year, standing passengers aren’t allowed in Delhi’s buses, and metro coaches are allowing only about 50 peoplet. Anumita Roychowdhury, a director at the advocacy group Centre for Science and Environment, estimated that public transit is operating at a third of capacity overall.




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